DEFINITION:Nuclear Medicine is a branch of medical practice concerned primarily with the use of unsealed radioactive sources in the study, diagnosis and treatment of disease.
goal of the nuclear medicine resident is to attain the competence to
function independently as a medical specialist with the ability to
advise on, supervise, perform and interpret imaging and non-imaging
diagnostic procedures, and to perform radiotherapy with unsealed
radioactive sources to such a level of competence as to function as a
consultant to referring physicians.
The purpose of the clinical training required is to give the resident a degree of independent responsibility for clinical decisions; an opportunity for further development of the skills required in making effective relationships with patients; the consolidation of competence in primary clinical and technical skills across a broad range of medical practice; and an understanding of the nature of the relationships between the referring physician and nuclear medicine consultant.
The resident must establish a habit of life long learning and a recognition of the importance of promoting a team approach to the use of nuclear medicine in diagnosis and therapy.
At first, the resident will be closely supervised, with the opportunity for increasing responsibility, so that the resident near the end of the residency can function as a nuclear medicine consultant, recognizing his or her limitations.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:At the completion of their residency, residents will have acquired and achieved the following:
An adequate understanding of the following:
The specialist in nuclear medicine is expected to be able to:
The specialist is expected to:
There must be an organized program of rotations and other educational experiences, both mandatory and elective, designed to provide each resident with the opportunity to fulfill the educational requirements and achieve competence in the specialty.
The content and organization of each accredited program in nuclear medicine must be consistent with the specialty training requirements.
Residents must be provided with increasing individual professional responsibility, under appropriate supervision, according to their level of training, ability, and experience.
In those cases where a university has sufficient resources to provide most of the training in nuclear medicine but lacks one or more essential elements, the program may still be accredited provided that formal arrangements have been made to send residents to another accredited residency program for periods of appropriate prescribed training.
There must be a sufficient number of qualified teaching staff to supervise residents at all levels and in all aspects of the specialty. The teaching staff should have an appropriate number of faculty certified in nuclear medicine.
Adequate in-patient and ambulatory care facilities must be available for the clinical investigation, treatment and follow-up of patients so that the complete range of referrals to a nuclear medicine department is obtained.
Residents must have access to a wide variety of patients ranging from those acutely ill to those being investigated on an out-patient basis in order to ensure that residents gain adequate experience in the selection of appropriate techniques and interpretation of studies under a variety of urgent, emergency and ambulatory conditions.
The residency program must ensure that each resident obtains experience in:
The following facilities and services must be available, either within the program or by arrangement with other programs or institutions, and closely coordinated with the overall residency program:
The academic and scholarly aspects of the program must be commensurate with the concept of a university postgraduate education. The quality of scholarship in the program will in part, be demonstrated by a spirit of enquiry during clinical discussions, rounds, and conferences. Scholarship implies an in-depth understanding of basic mechanisms of normal and abnormal states and the application of current knowledge to practice.
Organized scholarly activities such as lectures and seminars, which may be interdisciplinary in nature, special courses, rounds and conferences, technical demonstrations, and journal clubs must be a regular part of the program.
The academic program must include organized teaching in the basic and clinical sciences and advanced clinical and scientific knowledge related to nuclear medicine, including physics, radiobiology and protection, anatomy, pathology, radiopharmacy, mathematics, instrumentation, statistics, and radiation safety.
The program must ensure that residents gain an understanding of the basic principles and practice of biomedical ethics as it relates to nuclear medicine.
The program must ensure that residents learn effective communication skills for interacting with patients and their families, colleagues, co-workers from other disciplines, and students. Clearly defined educational objectives for teaching these skills and mechanisms of formal assessment should be in place.
Residents must be given opportunities to develop effective skills in collaborating with all members of the patient care team.
Residents must be given opportunities to develop effective teaching skills by teaching junior colleagues and students, as well as through conference presentations, clinical and scientific reports, and patient education.
Residents must be given opportunities to develop skills in management as applied to nuclear medicine such as efficient practice and records management and the ethical use of health care resources. Residents should also be prepared for their role as a health care advocate.
The program must provide residents with opportunities to gain an understanding of the principles and practice of quality assurance/improvement. Opportunities should be provided for residents to participate actively in such programs in their hospital departments.
There must be a faculty member with the responsibility to facilitate the involvement of residents in research and other scholarly work. The academic program must provide the opportunity for residents to learn biostatistics and the critical appraisal of research methodology and medical literature. Such teaching must include issues related to age, gender, culture, and ethnicity in research protocols and data presentation and discussion. Residents should be encouraged to participate in clinical research during the course of the residency program.
A satisfactory level of research and scholarly activity must be maintained among the faculty identified with the program.
All programs must promote development of skills in self-assessment and self-directed life-long learning. To promote this end, the program should provide opportunities for residents to attend conferences outside their own university.
Approved residency including:
PROGRAMS (WITH TRAINING REQUIREMENTS):
Eighteen months of approved residency training.
Forty eight months(four years)of approved residency training.